Monday, November 11, 2013

arts-harish-jan 12

WOODWORK
Making articles out of woodwork have come a long way from being a hobby some few years ago to now when it has become a potent activity in one’s endeavour to decorate one’s home. This activity not only keeps one occupied gainfully, but also saves money by helping them decorate their own homes. The demand for wooden furniture has reached new peaks, leading to the introduction of many new modular furniture vendors in the market.  These modular furniture vendors fabricate their furniture pieces in their factories, bring them to site in their loose condition and assemble the loose pieces at site.
But, making woodwork furniture at home from bare wooden sections shaves off a lot of expenditure from the budget of a home décor project. Not only is modular woodwork furniture more costly, but it also has a long lead time. This is however not the case with furniture items prepared at site by the carpenter.  In order to obtain good and stylish wooden items one needs the services of a skilful carpenter who is well versed with his craft.  Just buying two bare wooden pieces from the market and joining them to make a piece of wooden furniture is no big deal.
What requires more skill and patience is preparing woodwork furniture items based on blueprints prepared by the designer. There are a lot of websites on the internet which offer a plethora of design options to make such articles.  These articles can range from the humble side table to the more design intensive wardrobes, etc.
WOOD ART
Wood is considered to be a very holy material in the Indian context. Wood of all types ranging from the expensive teakwood, sandalwood, and rosewood to the relatively cheap Burma Teak is widely used to make many items be it of furniture or sculptures. These items were originally handcrafted by skilful craftsmen in their workshops using their carpentry tools.  These items are made to depict the rich Indian culture. These wood art items are widely used in decorating homes, gifting items for loved ones, souvenirs of special occasions. The most expensive of woods Sandalwood, is used in the making of wooden artefacts for locals and tourists alike.  Shivanwood, a cheap substitute for the more expensive Sandalwood, is used for slightly lower uses than mentioned for Sandalwood.
Rosewood, found in abundance in the regions of Karnataka and Mysore, has made these regions the centre for rosewood carvings since the medieval times. This wood is sometimes also used to make wood art items like high end wooden furniture. This wood is also used to make the idols of the Hindu gods and goddesses and therefore is found in furniture present in large residences, palaces, hotels and religious places.  Due to its dense grain structure, this wood is considered to be very strong and durable. Sheesham, another variety of wood, found in Saharanpur in North India, is probably the strongest variety of wood available in the market. For this reason, it finds application in the making of furniture items which are going to be traditionally carved and engraved.



WOOD WALL ART
The art of interior designing and decoration has gained more importance in the recent years thanks to the emphasis on external looks rather than a strong structure. Having a decorative living room or bedroom is every homeowners dream. Wood wall art forms an integral part of such design schemes.  The demand for exquisite pieces of wall art has fuelled the demand for ready readymade wooden items which adorn the walls of homes. But buying such readymade wall art items requires a special skill and the resources to match. Selecting good wall art is a skill.
Good wood wall art décor items handpicked by homeowners with an impeccable taste for such items, gives the stylish edge required in a contemporary design. The popularity of these items is evident from the variety of designs that are on offer in the market.  Not only do these items cover a bare wall, but they also provide an alternative to framed photographs. This is thanks to their large size. On offer are a variety of styles, designs and shapes right from the vinyl type which are durable and easy to wash, to the canvas style items. They tend to make the wall more decorative.
But the best items of wall art are the wood wall art items. Not only are these items pretty affordable, but they can also substitute photo frames on walls, providing the room that touch of nature. But selecting a stylish and designer piece of wall art piece is something that not everybody is adept at.
INDIAN SCULPTURES
The inception of Indian sculptures can be traced back to the Indus Valley Civilisation, which existed in the second and the third millennium. This era was responsible for many stone, terracotta and bronze sculptures that still adorn various important monuments in the country. However, wooden sculptures also occupy a very important space in traditional sculptures. Since most of the wooden sculptures and statues are from Karnataka, this region has become well known for sandalwood sculptures made from the tree of sandalwood. Apart from these the wood from the Shivani trees is also used to make wooden sculptures. Wood from this tree also enjoys more popularity among the locals for the making of traditional sculptures. Rosewood is another type of wood used in sculptures.
Like stone, wood and terracotta, bronze is another metal that has been predominantly used in making sculptures. Bronze as a metal has touched several cultures all over the world for many centuries. Like these cultures, it has affected the Indian culture too. Bronze Indian sculptures are a prominent part of sculptures. This connection dates back to almost 3000 years, but it has not ended yet. Bronze is still associated with the making of metal statues of Indian gods and goddesses. Also famous are terracotta sculptures. Terracotta represents the first creative expression of Indian art. It was man’s first attempt at craftsmanship. By nature, terracotta is a ceramic, which means “baked earth” or “fired earth”. The story of pottery and sculptures began with this material. Ever since, it has been closely associated with the making of sculptures.
BRASS SCULPTURES
India as a country is very rich in monuments and sculptures. Traditional Indian sculptures created by skilful Indian craftsmen have made a name for India in the world market. The materials which are used in the making of these sculptures are stone, wood, terracotta, bronze and brass. Brass sculptures are not very commonly found in India. Brass has been used as a material for crafting spice boxes of spice besamin of various sizes and shapes. Spice besamin is very widely used in Jewish culture right from its inception in ancient times. These sculptures are also found in the pure elegance and grace of imperial finished work. Imperial finished work is nothing but the process designed to enhance the finish of a finely crafted piece.
The use of these sculptures dates back to World War II, when brass was used as a material in making trains by the Japanese craftsmen who were producing replicas of the HO Model Trains. This manufacture of train models continued in Japan right up to the 1970s. It was after this that the brass sculptures made in the form of HO Trains were being collected by connoisseurs as a symbol of posterity during the old times. Slowly and surely, such sculpted items were turned into collectors items by people sensed that they had lost their value in the market. Many metal wall art sculptures are nothing but sculptures carved out of brass. These metal pieces create a visually enchanting experience that can be compared only to a painting.
BUDDHIST SCULPTURES
India as a country is known worldwide for its rich heritage, history and culture. It is due to its rich history that it has the most number of monuments in the country. Due to these monuments, India is still being considered favourably as a tourist destination by people from all over the world. One of the well known items worth visiting in India is the Buddhist sculptures. The origin of these Buddhist sculptures can be traced back to the time of the Emperor Chandragupta Maurya, in the third century BC.  This king built 85,000 stupas (dome shaped monuments) in the country in an attempt to spread the teachings of the Buddha in the country.  The distinguishing feature of these monuments was that its pillars were engraved with Buddhist teachings.
For example, “The Great Sanchi Stupa” at Sanchi, is 44 feet high having remarkably carved gateways, which illustrate Buddhist legends. So also the “Ashok Pillar” in Samarth in Madhya Pradesh, is an example of a flawless model exhibiting the superior design concepts of the Early art of India since its inception. Also noteworthy, are the well known “Buddhist marvels” which were created over a period of 14 centuries, “The Ajanta and Ellora “temples carved out of live rocks and cliffs, boasting of colossal sculptures of animals and gods, paintings depicting the ancient Buddhist lives through its Buddhist sculptures. There are other noteworthy relics of the ancient times which bring out the rich culture and heritage of the country, but the Buddhist sculptures take the cake in their superior mudras.
HINDU SCULPTURES
Traditionally, India has been a country rich in natural resources. It is also very well known for its beautiful sculptures and paintings. For quite some time now, the Asian art figure has been looked at with awe and respect worldwide. Hindu sculptures majorly depict the gods and the goddesses of the country.  The early Indian sculptures dating back to the second and third millennium, during the Indus Valley civilisation, mainly depict these sculptures at their best. The Indus Valley civilisation was known to have sculpted some of the most exquisite stone, terracotta or bronze sculptures to depict their gods and goddesses.  These sculptures created during the reign of the Emperor Ashoka, during the third century BC, cannot be ignored when we talk on this topic.
So also the “Ashoka Pillar” at Samarth in Madhya Pradesh, which exhibits Hindu sculptures at their best. This work of art exhibits the flawless workmanship of the craftsmen of that era. This monument depicts the superiority and fineness of the traditional Hindu sculptures, since its inception. Also noteworthy are the Hindu sculptures of the Khajuraho temple which were created in the tenth to eleventh century AD, and went into oblivion thereafter. They were then rediscovered by some archaeologists in Madhya Pradesh. But, then only 22 of the total 85 temples created at that time could be restored to their original position. By the fourth, fifth and sixth centuries AD, these sculptures manifested themselves in the sculptures of Hindu deities such as Lord Vishnu, Lord Krishna, The Sun God, and Goddess Durga. 
NEPALESE SCULPTURES
India has been a land of superior natural resources and a rich history and tradition of religious practices and religions. So also are other countries like Nepal, Bhutan, etc. Like India, Nepal too followed the practice of Idol worship. Therefore many Nepalese sculptures would be made to depict the gods and goddesses of the region.
The earliest inhabitants of the Nepal Valley were the Krats around the 8th century BC. Although, this tribe contributed significantly to the history of the country, it was the Mewar community, following the Krats that provided the country with an identity traditionally. It was during this time that Lumbini became the birthplace of the Lord Buddha. Therefore, there still exists a definite Buddhist influence in the Nepalese sculptures. Buddhist art flourished during the 2nd century BC.  The sculptures of time depicted the life and times of Gautam Buddha and his teachings. This was when Buddhism actually started.  
The many museums and galleries of Nepal are home to many valuable Nepalese sculptures. Noteworthy among them is the Nepal National Musuem, which is home to numerous sculpture works, paintings and murals. These Nepalese sculptures depict the kings and queens of the region, their memorablia and the lifestyle that they followed. Then there is the Nepal Fine Arts Gallery, which is just a few blocks away from the Patan Durbar Square, holds a number of traditional paintings and sculptures of the country. A prominent location for viewing these sculptures is Swoyambhunath. This stupa has many temples and shrines located around it.
INDIAN STONE SCULPTURES
India is a country well known for its monuments and places of worship. The main attraction in these edifices is the Indian stone sculptures. Since India is home to many natural stones like Redstone, Soapstone, Sandstone, Limestone, Granite and many others, availability of raw material for making stone sculptures was never an issue.
Stone is a prominent material in the Indian landmass, and therefore it is predominantly used to carve out the many forts, temples, palaces, sculptures, and household items. Prominent among these are the Indian stone sculptures.  Until the 7th century BC, stone craft was an unorganized profession. During the said date, there were born several guilds of stone carvers and masons. During the rule of Chandragupta Maurya, that stone craft reached the zenith of perfection in the country. As any profession has reference texts for its practice, stone craft had Shilpshastra. This was an ancient Hindu treatise on sculpture and architecture.
One noteworthy aspect about Indian stone sculpture in the country is the regional diversity it enjoys. This diversity is born out of the availability of natural resources in a particular region.  Orissa for instance has many intricate and finely crafted monuments like the Temples of Puri, Konark, Lingaraj, Parasurameshwar and Mukteshwar. Likewise, in Rajasthan the monuments like temples, palaces, forts, in regions like Ramgarh, Nagda, Ajmer, Jaisalmer, etc, out of the locally available metamorphic rocks competes with the latticework in the regions of Ajmer, Udaipur, Jodhpur and Bikaner.  Kota is famous for the Gray stone, used in flooring work, Barmer and Ajmer are well known for Yellow stone and granite.
TANTRA SCULPTURES
India, a country which is a staunch believer in the divine power, has been practicing yoga and meditation for quite some time now. Yoga as a discipline evolved in the form of written references almost 3500 years ago, in the Vedas. These Vedas spoke of the four Yogas namely Karma Yoga, Jnana Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, and Raja Yoga.  They also spoke of Tantra sculptures
Tantra Yoga, focussing on the devotional aspects of Bhakti Yoga, came much later.  This discipline focusing on the union of opposites, or the union of the Shakti male energy with the shiva female energy, speaks about the various different yoga poses used in this form of yoga. The yoga style teaches contorting, bending, flexing and deep breathing, all at the same time. This is done in several poses. Sculptures carved out of any material, depicting these poses, are termed as Tantra yoga sculptures or Tantra sculptures.  Tantra yoga speaks of the kundalini Shakti, which lies dormant within an individual in its uninstructed form.
Tantra sculptures are manifest in two edifices, one “The Thinker” by Rodin and the other “The Statue of David” by Michelangelo.  The first mentioned sculpture was a marble and bronze monument created by Augustine Rodin, whereas the latter was by Michelangelo. Whereas in “The Thinker”, the subject is in a seating position, leaning forward so that his elbows rest on his knees and his hand tucked under his chin for a look of contemplation, “The Statue of David” is that of King David displaying his state of mind, when he decides to fight Goliath.  Both these sculptures have the signatures of their makers on them.
WOOD SCULPTURES
Traditionally, India has been a country well known for its artistic carvings and sculptures. The natural resources available in the country like stones, metals, terracotta, marble, wood, etc help in the carving out of numerous masterpieces from them.  Indian sculptures have relied heavily on wood as a material for their making. This has resulted in many wood sculptures.
Original wood sculptures are both expensive and difficult to find. One needs to know a whole lot of things before one can buy an original sculpture. Some of the norms used in order to verify an original are its feel, its look, the maker’s signature on it, a tag, etc. India has a regional diversity when talking of Indian sculptures. These sculptures are predominantly found in Karnataka. This is because Rosewood, Shivani wood, Sandalwood are some of the types of wood commonly found in the state. Wooden sculptures can have many uses.  They can be used as showpieces in showcases, gifting items, etc.
Making an expensive, stylish, exquisite wood sculpture is an art in itself.  It requires superior workmanship and accurate tools. Not everyone can be a creator of good sculpture. The preliminary tools used to make this type of sculpture are a sharp chisel and a small hammer. These sculptures can be carved out in a variety of designs and motifs. One can carve out one’s own frame out of the wood, or one can have a model of a bird or animal for reference. The eagle is the most predominantly used bird for making wooden sculptures. Other models used are the evening village scenery.
GANESH STATUES
India is replete with many items of religious and historical importance. Some of these are its numerous forts, monuments, temples, caves, etc. Its numerous Indian sculptures are also considered to have religious and historical importance.  Indian sculptures are made from various materials like wood, stone, bronze, terracotta, metals, etc, depending upon the natural resources available in the region. 
A majority of the above Indian sculptures are made to depict Indian gods and goddesses. This is due to the affinity of the average Indian towards religion and religious beliefs.  At times, these beliefs also border on blind faiths. Ganesh is among one of the deities that has been created most of the times. This has given rise to Ganesh statues. This Indian god is said to be a “Vignaharta”, which in English means getting rid of obstacles. Having statues of this god in one’s home offers one a designated feeling of calmness and piousness. This also makes the atmosphere very divine.
A typical Ganesh Statues made either from metal, ivory, stone, or any other material depicts the Lord holding a broken tusk in his lower right hand, which symbolizes sacrifice, a rosary in his left hand signifying that the quest for knowledge should be never ending, fan like ears indicating that he is listening to our petitions with his big ears, his vehicle the mouse, the lowliest of creatures, signifies his humility. Thus it is evident that by owning the coveted statues, one is endowed with all the virtues that the Lord strives to depict, through his statue. Truly, owning Ganesh statues is a privilege in itself.
BUDDHA STATUES
Indian statues are traditionally made to depict animals, birds, gods, goddesses, famous people and their teachings, instances from the life of common people, the scenery of a beautiful place and many more. These are made from materials like metal, ivory, glass, bronze, terracotta, marble, wood, etc.
Buddha statues also reflect the various virtues and incidents from the life of Gautama Buddha. “Buddhism” is a discipline that is taught to attain “Nirvana” or salvation. The teachings of Gautam Buddha propagate the fact that the root cause of sufferings and unhappiness is one’s state of mind and perception. The Lord Buddha further goes on to provide a remedy for these sufferings in Vipassana Meditation.  Such statues with different poses are made to depict this and his other philosophies. The different positions the Buddha statues are available in are standing Buddha, laughing Buddha, sleeping Buddha, blessing Buddha, meditating Buddha, teaching Buddha, etc.
Buying and owning the right type of Buddha statues depends upon some key factors. There are in all 8 factors that are to be looked at when deciding what type of statues to buy. These are as under: understand why the statue is to be bought, learn to differentiate a Buddha statue from other religious statues, be careful from whom to buy the statue, quality authentication by watching face painting, looking at the ears, checking carvings on the body of the Buddha, knowing the different types of statues, fill Buddha statues with Holy chanting. These statues are made in countries like India, China and Nepal.
INDIAN DOLLS
Toys have been a fancy accessory for kids and adults alike. A word “toy” traces its antecedents back to the age when the first mammals inhabited the earth.  Most young mammals have been observed to display behaviour similar to human babies. They seek out entertainment from their surroundings. Thus it is believed that toys date back to their times.
Typically dolls are elements that can be used for various purposes. They can be used as gifting items for birthdays, as collector items for connoisseurs, as educational tools to depict the culture and tradition of the region to which they belong, as modes of entertainment for kids, etc. Indian dolls are available in a variety of shapes and colours. A variety of materials are also used to manufacture them. Common materials that are used in its manufacture are Porcelain, Wood, Cloth, Plastic, PVC, Glass, Metal, Terracotta, etc. These dolls are available in all types of styles and designs.
These dolls are distinctive in their appearance as they are represented in a unique way. Native Indian dolls aregiven the dress of a saree and a choli over it.  It is even given a petticoat to wear under the saree. At times, they are given clothes which depict the dress of the region from which they come. India being a diverse country has people of different religions and consequently different dress codes. A doll could wear a dress of a tribal Indian girl, or a male doll could be sporting a dress fit for the head of a tribal village.
TERRACOTTA WARRIORS, TERRACOTTA ARMY, TERRACOTTA SOLDIERS
The well known Dorset Holiday Cottages is situated in Dorset and it is host to a plethora of tourists coming to Dorset to view its many special sights. A typical sign in Dorset says “Terracotta Warriors Museum”.  A cursory glance at the place will reveal that it is the sign for museum housing the famous Terracotta Warriors of China.
The name Terracotta Army represents the 8000 life size figures of the Terracotta Soldiers who were given the task of accompanying the first Emperor of Unified China, Qin Shi Huang, on his last journey. These warriors were supposed to guard the Qin Shi Huang Mausoleum complex which was to be created by 700,000 workers, near the city of Xian, in China. Making the 8000 these soldiers in clay, all decked in their war clothes turned out to be a difficult task for the craftsmen of those times. Although these figurines were built in a workshop, the unique facial features of the members of this army were designed by the workers manually.
Few places in the world would compare with the Chinese Emperors Tomb, the Terracotta Warriors, in China. Although, not as well known as the Great Wall of China, this monument is a tribute to the 8000 Terracotta Soldiers of the Terracotta Army who withstood all types of enemies in order to guard the Mausoleum They did so for more than 2 millennia. The sight of 8000 soldiers all resplendent in their war finery is intimidating to behold. There are whispers that the monument was saved as it was underground, but one just cannot ignore the role that these brave hearts played.
TERRACOTTA POTS
Many homes in rural India utilize the earthen pots to keep their drinking water cool.  The earthen pot is said to maintain the temperature of the water inside cool, thus giving cool water whenever needed.  Terracotta pots are therefore increasingly being used by people all over the world.
Terracotta pots were first utilized to store food by the Etruscans, from Greece. A famous Greek Historian, Herodolus, has provided evidence that the Etruscans stored water, olive oil and wine in such pots. Pottery making made them patient, determined, humble, proud of their customs, adept at fighting the forces of nature. These pots use the principle of convection during the process of cooking food.  The water absorbed by the pots when they are submerged in water is utilized to make the food tender and tasteful when it is being cooked over a coal stove. Hence they are very useful when cooking food.
The use of TerracotIta pots is made by people all over the world. Not only are they good cooking tools, but they also are good options for growing plants in modern gardens. Terracotta has a property that it does not break even during very low temperatures. This property has made it very useful in the cold countries as garden pots or as cooking tools. It can even sustain frost. As they are easy to make a light in weight, These pots are preferred by many people in their homes, especially by the Etruscans, to store their wines to cool it before they have it.
INDIAN BEADS
Thanks to its humungous population, India has been a country famous for labour intensive jobs worldwide. Be it the coding of software or data entry in a computer, or for that matter even jewellery crafting out of precious stones and beads. This list is not exhaustive but indicative. In other words, India has enjoyed a monopoly in labour intensive fields since ancient times. It also has rich cultural heritage and traditions. Ancient Indian jewellery pieces are the cynosure of all eyes. Jewellery made from Indian beads enjoys the same popularity.  This propensity in the making of such jewellery is thanks to the skilful craftsmen inhabiting the country.
As mentioned earlier, in the field of jewellery making India enjoys a monopoly worldwide. These jewellery items are made from various raw materials. Indian beads form an integral part of any Indian jewellery item available in the world market. This is due to the fact that India produces a variety of beads namely glass beads, metal beads, wood beads, clay beads, horn beads, ceramic beads, lac beads and many others.  This list is not exhaustive but indicative. Although, Glass beads control the beads market in India, other varieties cannot be ignored. The higher end beads are used for making high end jewellery items fit for the elite class.
The buying of these beads which was originally done only through trusted jewellers has now gone hi-tech with the introduction of online retailers.  These retailers have changed the market dynamics drastically and given birth to a new channel of product distribution.  Truly, Indian beads are ones to watch out for in traditional Indian jewellery.


18K GOLD BEADS
Traditionally, Indian gold jewellery has fascinated people both within and outside the country. Indian gold jewellery can be adorned with many materials. 18k Gold Beads are just one of the many items used for the same. Gold is an expensive metal and therefore all jewellery made from it can be afforded only by the elite class. But adorning this gold jewellery with gold beads makes it more costly.  A technique called as Electroform has been devised which seeks to make Gold Jewellery affordable for the common man. This is done by making the gold jewellery pieces hollow, in the process reducing its weight and the subsequent cost.
With such affordability came demand which further led to new designs and styles. Decorating Indian gold jewellery with 18k gold beads became commonplace. Now all types of people wore Indian gold jewellery decorated with such beads more regularly. Some wore colours matching their outfits, whereas some others wore outfits to match their jewellery. 18k Indian gold jewellery decorated with these gold beads would actually provide competition to any piece of gold jewellery available in the market.  Necklaces are items which are commonly adorned with gold beads. A necklace is an item worn in the neck by an Indian woman.
The advantage of wearing Indian jewellery adorned with 18k gold beads is that after wearing it, one need not cover oneself with other jewellery items. This is because the aura created by an Indian jewellery item adorned with gold beads is comparable to wearing gold jewellery. It acts as a substitute for its costlier contemporary.
FACETED GEMS BEADS
Traditional Indian jewellery is made in different styles and patterns to suit the requirements of the region. The diversity in Indian jewellery follows the disparity that exists among the Indian people in terms of ethnic dress codes, Indian jewellery patterns worn, habits and customs, etc. Faceted gems beads jewellery is just one of them.
Faceted gems beads are beads having sharp edges. Normally, a bead is circular in shape and size. But this bead is not completely spherical and does not have evenly circulated edges round it. However, the beads are of equal sizes. Gemstone bead jewellery is cut using a diamond edged blade. This helps make the edges perfectly sharp and equal. These edges are then painted by hand to give them a colourful finish. Such beads are primarily used to make gemstone jewellery to give a perfect look to the silver or gold Indian jewellery. This style of jewellery has become very popular.
The popularity of such beads can be gauged from the fact that they are a part of a normal Tuscan Gem and Mineral Show, which occurs twice every year. This show is said to display jewellery items prepared by the East Indians.  This tribe has the expertise to create exquisite faceted gems beads jewellery so much so that they have given a tough competition to the Chinese, where the gems beads are found in abundance. This type of jewellery is now also available online through various internet portals which have invested in e-commerce solutions for online transactions.

FINDINGS BEADS
Indian jewellery is full of traditional jewellery items made from materials as diverse as gold and gemstones. This diversity owes itself to the buying capacity of the people and to their customs and traditions. Just as jewellery beads adorn an item of jewellery, findings beads are responsible for giving finish to the piece.
Jewellery beads make jewellery more attractive and flashy. Beads jewellery, which is normally preferred by the youth, conveys buoyancy to the design of the jewellery. A typical jewellery bead can be made out of acrylic, glass, metal, shell, crystal, turquoise, and wood. Beautiful jewellery beads are available online thanks to the opening up of a new distribution channel in Indian jewellery trade. The only issues in buying Indian jewellery with findings beads online are security of the transaction and authenticity of the jewellery bought. The first factor has been adequately addressed by the agencies offering online payment gateways and the latter can be addressed by the customer.
Findings beads are nothing but the seemingly insignificant but vitally important parts of any Indian jewellery item. For example, a golden bracelet would look incomplete without crimp beads. In this case the crimp beads are classified as jewellery findings. Their role in contemporary Indian jewellery designs cannot be overlooked. Typical items of such jewellery are earring wires, crimp beads, eye pins, headpins and clasps. These can be of silver or sterling silver. Just as crimp beads are used in Indian beads jewellery, earring wires allow one to design “eardrop” style designs, with a bead or a pearl attached.
GEMSTONE BEADS
Indian jewellery, down the years has been the most coveted items of the world among people. This can be attributed to the superior craftsmanship of their makers and their traditional value. Gemstone beads are also one of the items used for the making of traditional Indian jewellery.
During the ancient times, traditional Indian jewellery was made by hand by the skilful craftsmen of the time. The skill and patience required for this vocation was immense and therefore Indian craftsmen were respected and admired worldwide. These workers were responsible for stringing together the gemstone beads in a sequence such that it forms a necklace or a bracelet fit for wearing. These beads are beautiful pieces which represent the art and design style of a particular region of the country. They are designed according to the tastes of the end user of the jewellery.  Making them is not an easy task to accomplish.
Gemstone beads are available in a variety of styles, colours, shapes and sizes. Typical styles are the classic and the vintage styles and the fashionable styles. These different styles cater to people from different age groups. For example, fashionable styles are preferred by people from the younger generation who would want to look attractive and draw attention towards them. On the other hand, the vintage styles are favourites with the older people. Thus these beads carved out in intricate designs of flora, fauna are very popular among the youth. Whereas, the older generation go for the ancient beads depicting deities and abstract art.
GOLD PLATED BEADS
From the ancient times, Indian gold jewellery has caught the fancy of the locals and the foreigners. But the bare fact is that this soft metal cannot be afforded by anyone and everyone. Therefore traditional gold jewellery made of pure gold was only worn by the elite class and that too during religious ceremonies, where they had to portray their status in society. This obsession with Indian gold jewellery led to the birth of gold plated jewellery, and further gold plated beads jewellery. Indian jewellery items like the tikka ornate with gold plated beads, the waist band decorated with gold plated beads along the periphery, are commonly worn during marriage ceremonies. During the birth of a child, most women wear a charm bracelet, adorned with plated beads.
A variety of body piercing Indian jewellery decorated with these beads  are popular among the women. The navel is one of the most sensual and erogenous portion of a female’s body. An exposed navel always turns heads. In the olden days, women belonging to the Marwari community wore a Ghaghara and choli such that they exposed their navels. These exposed navels were covered with Indian jewellery items like body piercing jewellery. The navel ring covered with gold plated beads, captive bead rings, barbells and labarets are some such items of Indian jewellery covered which create an aura round the wearer. These navel rings are made from a variety of materials like surgical steel, titanium rings, rings with charms on them and captive rings covered with beads.
PRECIOUS BEADS
Deciding the type of gemstone beads to work with, from a plethora of available options is similar to deciding which hair to pull out from the head. But with the choice of beads having been made, this confusion has been done away with.  Precious beads are gemstone beads made from precious stones.
Gemstones are said to be the traditionally found precious stones. They have found applications in many areas from the ancient times from jewellery making to future gazing and in healing. There is no area of civilisation that has not been touched by these precious beads. Apart from being a conduit for the divine and possessing healing powers, they are also used in the making of traditional Indian jewellery items. At times, the jewellery is made barely from gemstone beads, which are themselves made from precious stones The making of these beads can be accomplished either at home or in a workshop.
When precious beads are made at home, invariably polished stones are used for the purpose. That is not to say that unpolished stone will not fit the bill. As a matter of fact, the latter will make for a really pretty picture too.  Working on manipulating beads requires special apparatus like a workbench, a small vice, When this apparatus is ready, the beads can be mounted on the vice, holding it securer using a padding material between the vice and the bead. Now one can drill in the bead in order to make a hole in it for stringing it.
STERLING SILVER BEADS
Gemstones are widely used in the making of traditional Indian jewellery since the ancient times. These are available in two varieties namely naturally occurring and the manmade variety. The former is used in the making of Indian jewellery, whereas the latter being soft finds its application in other uses. A noteworthy gemstone used in the manufacture of traditional Indian jewellery is sterling silver. At times sterling silver beads are also used to manufacture jewellery items. They can add style, panache and class to any item of traditional Indian jewellery like necklaces, bracelets, earrings, etc. These beads are also used in combination with some other materials for jewellery. Such jewellery can be classified as “fashionable” and “classy” in normal parlance.
Sterling silver being a metal can go with any item of traditional Indian jewellery of any colour. The metallic look provided by the sterling silver jewellery would make the attire look fantastic and elegant. Many varieties of sterling silver beads are available for use in the market. There are the tiny little beads called as the spacer beads, which do exactly that, space out the design elements in a traditional Indian jewellery item. These beads can also be used to revamp an old design in traditional Indian jewellery. Stringing together some beads of this variety and adding it to an existing traditional jewellery piece not only lends a new look to the item, but it also makes it look more contemporary and stylish. These beads are available in a variety of colours, shapes and styles.


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